Realistic Surgical Image Augmentation image-to-image domain transfer by Generative Adversarial Nets (GANs)
Melody Su(1), Wenfan Jiang(1), Haonan Peng(2)
(1) Department of Computer Science, Mount Holyoke College
(2) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Washington
Surgical tool segmentation is a key component of numerous computer-assisted interventions. Due to the challenges of dynamic deformation, specular reflections, and partial blurriness, it often requires large surgical image datasets to achieve desirable segmentation performances using data-driven approaches. However, since large surgical image datasets are expensive and sometimes even impractical to acquire from clinical robot assisted surgeries because of the potential interruption of surgical workflows, as well as sterilization and data privacy concerns, our group implemented a realistic surgical image augmentation framework based on GANs (Generative Adversarial Networks). In this proposed model, the authors created a CycleGAN-like structure with four loss functions. The image level losses, (1) the cycle-consistency loss and (2) the GAN loss, were designed to preserve the semantic meaning of the whole image; meanwhile, the component-level loss functions such as (3) the style loss of tool and (4) the content loss of tissue, trace back in the hidden layer activations to perform deep restricted style transfer locally in the surgical tool region of the images while ensuring minimal modifications to the background. The separation of foreground and background were provided in the dataset as prior knowledge. Specifically, the authors trained the proposed model on two sets of pre-segmented images, the UW Sinus Surgery Cadaver/Live Dataset alongside a baseline fake surgical image generator which constructs mass, unrealistic augmented surgical images. In addition, the performances of four slightly different GAN inspired framework were comparatively showcased, demonstrating that this proposed framework outperforms the others. The first approach was to naively train CycleGAN on raw images. In the second iteration, images were preprocessed to standardize image quality and border consistency. The authors also tried to conduct local GAN training only in the surgical tool portion, but ultimately the best result was obtained using proposed the partial style preservation framework. As a next step, the authors will test the proposed GAN-based artificial surgical image generator by evaluating whether a state-of-the-art surgical tool segmentation model can be trained on our artificial surgical images and perform well on real surgical images during test time.
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 This is a software package Haonan developed and shared for our research study.
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